Infertility in a woman may stem from many causes, such as hormonal imbalance, problems in reproductive system, illness or unknown factors. The most likely causes for female infertility are: –
- Pelvic Inflammatory disease [PID]
PID is the most common cause for infertility. It is an infection of the pelvis. One or more of the reproductive organs, like ovaries and / or tubes, cervix or uterus are infected.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome [PCOS]
In PCO, the ovaries produce high amounts of male hormones especially testosterone. LH hormone level remains abnormally high while FSH levels are low, thus the follicles do not produce eggs. Instead they form fluid filled cysts that eventually cover the ovaries.
Endometriosis refers to a condition in which sections of the uterine lining implant in the vagina, ovaries, fallopian tubes or pelvis. These implants eventually form cysts that grow with each menstrual cycle, and may eventually turn into blisters and scars. The scars can then block the passage of the egg.
- Ovarian problems
Problems within the ovaries may inhibit reproduction.
- Hormonal problems
Decreased production of any one of the five hormones (what hormones?) that regulate a woman’s reproductive cycle may result in infertility.
- Thyroid deficiency may cause ovarian problems.
- High prolactin level can also prevent ovulation.
- Immune system Problems / Problems associated with Immune system
Woman may develop antibodies that attack the man’s sperm, mistaking it for a toxic invader. Certain autoimmune diseases, in which the immune cells attack normal cells in her own body, may also contribute to the ovarian problems
- Luteal Phase Defect [LPD]
In LPD, corpus luteum, the mound of yellow tissue produced from the egg follicle Â may fail to produce enough progesterone to thicken the uterine lining. Then the fertilized egg may be unable to implant.
Fibroids or benign growths may form in the uterus near the fallopian tubes or cervix. As a result, the sperm or fertilized egg cannot reach the uterus or implant there.
- Other Uterine Problems
Abnormal reproductive organs or endometritis [an abnormal swelling of the uterine lining] may make it difficult for the fertilized egg to implant.
- Surgical Complications
Scar tissue left after abdominal surgery can cause problems in the movements of the ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus, resulting in infertility.
- Frequent abortions
Frequent abortions may also produce infertility by weakening the cervix or by leaving the scar tissue that obstructs the uterus.
- Uterinemuscle problems
During ovulation, uterine contraction usually push the sperm up to the fallopian tube, Weak , infrequent or abnormal contraction causes problem.
- Poor quality cervical mucous
Some times a cervical mucous fails to thin around the time of ovulation & consequently it prevents the sperm from travelling through it.
Long illness may also cause infertility. High blood sugar level or high blood pressure can also be a cause.Other factors that contribute to infertility include excessive exercise, obesity, stress or anorexia.