Female Infertility

Female infertility is female infertility and refers to the inability to conceive within a year of unprotected intercourse.

Female Infertility

Female infertility is defined as the failure of conception after one year of unprotected intercourse. About 15-20% of all couples in the world are infertile. Female factors are the cause of infertility about one-third of the time which is called "female factor" infertility, and male factors about one-third of the time. The cause is either unknown or a combination of male and female factors in the remaining cases (idiopathic infertility).

Female infertility can be of two types. A woman who's never been able to conceive has primary infertility, whereas an infertile woman who's had at least one successful prior pregnancy has secondary infertility.

In women, fertility peaks between ages 20 and 24 years. After this, there is a progressive decline in fertility until about age 32, followed by a steep decline after age 40. So, we know that the chances of being infertile increases as a woman ages. Up to the age of 35, most doctors recommend trying to get pregnant for at least a year before testing or infertility treatment. In between ages 35 and 40, concerns can be discussed with the doctor after six months of trying. If the age is above 40 years, the doctor might suggest tests or treatment right away.


  • The primary symptom of infertility in women is the inability to conceive and bear kids. Other symptoms include painful periods, irregular ovulation and menstrual cycle, pain during copulation, and fluctuations in hormone levels causing unexplained weight gain, severe acne, reduced sex drive or loss of sexual desire, nipple discharge, facial hair in females, and thinning hair on the top of the head.

  • The diagnosis for female infertility includes Blood tests (to check hormone levels), Laparoscopy, Hysterosalpingography (HSG), or an Endometrial Biopsy (to examine the lining of your uterus).


Female infertility could be caused by a number of factors including

  • Ovulation disorders such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), Hypothalamic dysfunction, and Primary Ovarian Insufficiency (POI)
  • Tubal Infertility problems because of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), or previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvis
  • Endometriosis
  • Uterine or Cervical issues like benign outgrowths, polyps, fibroids and tumours, cervical stenosis, and even congenital problems
  • Problems with egg number and quality
  • Combination of several minor factors in both partners


Once your healthcare provider has diagnosed female infertility and pinpointed the cause, there are a variety of treatment options. The cause of the infertility guides the type of treatment, and it consists of varied options :

  • Surgeries such as Laparoscopy or Hysteroscopy
  • Tubal Infertility problems because of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), or previous surgery in the abdomen or pelvisOvulation Induction using hormone treatment
  • Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) such as In-vitro Fertilisation (IVF), Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), and Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI).

Risk Factors

There are also a few risk factors without the prevention of which, infertility could result. This includes advancing age, excessive smoking or drinking, excessive weight gain or loss, stress, improper diet, certain medications and drugs, and sexual history.

Being diagnosed with infertility is not the end of the road. It may take some time, but with the right treatment, it is possible for infertile couples to have a child, either on their own, or through medical assistance. The treatment that is right for a couple will depend on many factors, including age, the cause of the infertility, and personal preferences. So, one can look forward with hope.