Stem Cell Therapy is a popular method in which stem cells will be collected at the time of birth .
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are present in the embryonic, foetal, and adult stages of life and give rise to differentiated cells that make up the building blocks of tissue and organs. They are available throughout the human body, in the amniotic fluid, umbilical cord, bone marrow, and adipose tissue also. Stem cells can be said to be the raw material of one's body. They have the capability of producing more functional cells under specific circumstances. Due to their unlimited source and high differentiation potential, stem cells are considered as potentially new therapeutic agents for the treatment of infertility.
Stem Cells in Therapy
Stem cells are generally classified into Embryonic stem cells (ESCS),Non-Embryonic or Adult stem cells (ASCs), and Induced Pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
Stem cells are promising for the treatment of many diseases because they are able to renew themselves and to differentiate into several cellular types. In particular, growing evidence from pre-clinical and clinical studies indicates that stem cells could restore menstruation, hormone levels and, in rare cases, the ability to conceive. Stem cells are also increasingly being investigated as promising alternative therapeutics in regenerative medicine. Tremendous headway has been made to understand the biology and function of stem cells. Extensive research is being conducted on induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) for their potential application in reproductive medicine, especially in cases of infertility resulting from azoospermia and premature ovarian insufficiency.
Stem Cell Treatment for Male Infertility
In essence, the stem cell treatment for male infertility is done through the procedure of spermatogenesis. The process helps haploid spermatozoa in developing from germ cells in the testis tubules. It begins through the mitotic division of stem cells and aids the testes in growing more sperm cells than usual. This way, the sperm count in men can rise, and the effect of infertility lowered gradually as well. If everything goes in the right direction, then the couple might start conceiving within a few years.
Stem Cell Treatment for Female Infertility
Stem cell therapy can be beneficial for women with infertility as well. It can help in oocyte generation and ovarian cell production. This way, their overall fertility level can increase massively. Furthermore, it can also repair the tissues of the uterus. This helps women get rid of their infertile state and go on towards motherhood.
The therapeutic effects of stem cells have already been proven by various studies using animal models and clinical trials. More research is being conducted though to find out the efficiency of stem cells in human beings. One impediment that has hindered stem cell research for years is the ethical factor. It is imperative to make sure that the clinical application of stem cells should be in line with ethical and moral requirements, including informed voluntary consent and other ethical principles of clinical research.